Environmental Security and Sustainability: Publications

Military Energy Security: Current Efforts and Future Solutions by Daniel Sater

In the first six months of 2011, the U.S. civilian power grid suffered 155 blackouts affecting an average of 83,000 people with 36 blackouts affecting over 100,000 people. Despite these staggering numbers, US military bases rely solely on the civilian grid to power 99% of their war fighting capabilities, homeland security missions, and rescue and relief operations. This paper analyzes the Department of Defense’s current efforts to increase energy efficiency and assurance and makes recommendations on the policy options available to the DOD to increase the incorporation of smart microgrids onto its military installations.

Daniel Sater was a Research Fellow at Global Green USA's Security and Sustainability Office in Washington, D.C., in the summer of 2011. He is a graduate student at the Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy at the University of Virginia. Daniel holds a BA in Foreign Affairs from the University of Virginia and will receive his Master of Public Policy degree in May 2012.

Abandoned Chemical Weapons in China: The Unresolved Japanese Legacy by Mike Brombach

This paper assesses the reasons for the slow progress in destroying Japanese abandoned chemical weapons in China. Japan abandoned an estimated 300,000-400,000 chemical weapons on the territory of China after WWII. Japan is obligated to destroy these weapons by 2012 under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) of 1997. The first chemical weapon in China was not destroyed until fall 2010 and as a result Japan and China are unlikely to meet the 2012 final CWC destruction deadline. The slow pace of progress and inability of Japan and China to meet the 2012 deadline for destruction of the declared chemical weapons are due to the complicated nature of the project along with technical problems, negotiation issues, and financial and diplomatic difficulties.

A Farewell to Nuclear Arms by Mikhail Gorbachev

October 2012 editorial published on the 25th anniversary of the historic Ronald Reagan-Mikhail Gorbachev meeting.

Disarmament in an Arab Summer

This paper analyzes disarmament negotiations, primarily regarding chemical weapons, in the Middle East and the prospects for advancement under changing security relations in the region.  The paper approaches the question of disarmament negotiations in two distinct ways.   First, an examination of the precedent established by regional security agreements in other parts of the world, and the strengths and limitations therein.  And second, an analysis of the specific security concerns of Egypt, Syria, and Israel, and how they influence both official government negotiations (Track I) and those of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) (Track II).  The conclusion includes a discussion of proposed summits in the Middle East in 2012 focused on a Weapons of Mass Destruction Free Zone (WMDFZ) in the region.

Facilitating Nonproliferation and Demilitarization: Lessons Learned by Dr. Paul Walker

This is the presentation of Dr. Paul Walker, director of the Global Green USA Security and Sustainability Program, at the International Working Group organized by the Landau Network Centro Volta in Como, Italy, which hosted a working roundtable meeting on Monday, June 20, 2011 on the subject of Science Collaboration and Security: A New Global Outreach to Key Actors.

Unknown Chernobyl: History, Events, Facts, Lessons 

This publication is a part of our Archive Series. It was published in 2006 on the 20th anniversary of the disaster. It explores the historical and scientific problems concerning the legacy of radiation at the site.

Floating Nuclear Power Plants in Russia: A Threat to the Arctic, World Oceans, and the Nonproliferation Treaty

Third edition; edited by V. M. Kuznetsov, St. Robinson and V. Rossi. A 2004 study by Green Cross Russia found significant risks in deploying the kinds of floating nuclear power plants proposed in Russia. This study is the first in a series of publications to be re-released as part of our Archive Series (1994-2007). The series will feature works in English and Russian that continue to be relevant to today's policy debates.

Presentation at the United Nations on Sea-Dumped Chemical Weapons byDr. Paul F. Walker

The Lithuanian Mission to the United Nations organized a discussion before the UN Second Committee on Thursday, November 11, 2010, to discuss a draft resolution on sea-dumped chemical weapons. Dr. Paul F. Walker, director of the Security and Sustainability Program at Global Green USA, and Dr. Terrance Long, an international expert on sea-dumped munitions, were both introduced by Lithuanian Ambassador Dalius Cekuolis. The session was chaired by Mr. Tory Torrington from the Mission of Guyana.

Japanese Potentially Polluting Wrecks in the Pacific Ocean by Ryo Sato

This paper assesses the location and potential dangers of contaminant associated with Japanese sunken ships and the possible contaminants, including oil and chemical weapons, leaking from the sunken ships in the Pacific Ocean. Many countries dumped chemical agents into the ocean; some agents, including chemical munitions, were dumped intentionally and others accidentally into the ocean. In either case, marine disposal of chemicals of all kinds threatens human and environmental life. Released July 2010.

Sea-Dumped Chemical Weapons in Hawaii by Ryo Sato

This report summarizes the problems, background, and risks, of sea-dumped chemical munitions primarily around the island of Oahu. From 1932-1945, the U.S. Army dumped thousands of tons of chemical weapons off Hawaii’s coasts. Until the Virginian Daily Press drew attention to these chemical munition dumpsites in 2005, the general population of Hawaii was unaware of their existence.The University of Hawaii has been investigating chemical weapons dumpsites and has found a number of sea-dumped chemical munitions around the heavily populated island of Oahu. Released July 2010.

Sea-Dumped Chemical Weapons in Japan by Ryo Sato

This paper primarily assesses the document, "The National Survey on Toxic Gas of Former Army," prepared by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment, relating to sea-dumped chemical munitions, as well as other materials. The issues examined are the history of chemical weapons in Japan including production, stockpiles and especially sea-dumping of these munitions. Released in May 2010.

Russia's Uneasy Relationship with Iran by Marina Voronova-Abrams

U.S. Secretary of State Clinton's March 2010 visit to Moscow underlined the continuing tensions the U.S. and Russia are having over Iran. While the Obama administration is pushing for strict sanctions against Iran, Moscow is urging greater caution and expressing frustration at the U.S. about restrictions to trade.

Defense Sustainability: Energy Efficiency and the Battlefield by Schuyler Null

February 2010 report on climate change and energy security.

2009 National Security and Nonproliferation Briefing Book

Ploughshares Fund's Peace and Security Initiative's 2009 National Security and Non-Proliferation Briefing Book, with chapters from our Paul Walker.

10th Russian National Dialogue on Chemical Weapons Destruction

Green Cross Russia, Green Cross Switzerland, and Global Green USA are behind this collection that features the proceedings of the Tenth Chemical National Dialogue on the Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention by Russia as of the end of 2008.

Second Russian National Dialogue On Energy, Society And Security

This collection includes reports and speeches as well as the question-and-answer sessions that took place at the Second Public Dialogue on Nuclear Energy, Society and Security, organized and held April 2008 in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Russian Nuclear National Dialogue: Energy, Society, and Security

This collection presents research and presentations as well as questions and answers from the Russian Nuclear National Dialogue "Energy, Society and Security," organized by Green Cross Russia, Green Cross Switzerland, and Global Green USA in April 2007 in Moscow.

Moving Toward Sustainable Conversion, The Third Annual National Forum on Military Toxic Cleanup and Base Conversion

Report on November 1996 forum that brought together a broad cross-section of citizens, officials from local, state and federal government, defense and service branch personnel, non-profit groups and others working on military base cleanup and conversion issues.